Matt Strassler has a nice, current as of September 2011, post up providing background on the Higgs boson search in the context of half a dozen different theoretical models. The outline is as follows:
"1.The Standard Model Higgs particle
2.A Standard Model Higgs sector but with Other New Particles
3.The case of two Higgs particles
4.The case of five Higgs particles
5.Supersymmetry: Five Higgs particles along with superpartners [new!]
6.No Higgs particle (to speak of) [new!]"