Monday, June 27, 2022

Events In 1627 CE Worthy Of A Movie

In the long scheme of history, these events, sometimes called somewhat misleadingly, the Turkish abductions, made little difference and were an outlier to the overall trends. But, they would be a great foundation for a movie bringing this historic period in multiple places to life and connecting them:

The Turkish Abductions (Icelandic: Tyrkjaránið) were a series of slave raids by pirates from Northwest Africa that took place in Iceland in the summer of 1627.

The pirates came from the cities of Algiers which was part of the Ottoman Empire (in modern-day Algeria) and Salé which was its own city-state known as Republic of Salé a tributary state of Morocco. They raided Grindavík, the East Fjords, and Vestmannaeyjar. About 50 people were killed and close to 400 people were captured and sold in the African slave market. A ransom was eventually paid, 9 to 18 years later, for the return of 50 individuals.

The label "Turkish" does not refer to Turkey; at the time it was a general term for all Muslims in the Mediterranean region since the majority were a part of the Ottoman Empire. During the 17th century, the majority of those called "Turks" in Algeria, were disowned Christians that had converted to Islam. They were mostly Spanish, Italians, and provençaux (French).

Ancient v. Modern Y-DNA R1b-V88


From here.

The ancient DNA "X" in the image in very close geographically to the site of the Bug-Dneister culture.

This is relevant previous discussions of Y-DNA R1b-V88 at this blog on May 6, 2022 and on September 27, 2017, in which I argue that Y-DNA R1b-V88 bearing Chadic people are derived from migrants who originated in the Bug-Dneister culture of Ukraine departing between 5400 BCE and 5200 BCE. 

See also earlier analysis at this blog not reaching the full conclusion, including a detailed paleo-climate analysis on March 2, 2014, a wet Sahara post on November 11, 2012, and a post on March 14, 2012 citing:

Friday, June 24, 2022

How Long Were Neanderthals and Modern Humans Neighbors In Europe?

My working estimate had been about 1,000 years of co-existence at any one place (an estimate also in line with estimated periods of co-existence for the first farmers and the prior hunter-gatherers of Europe). This paper's conclusion is a bit longer than that.
Recent fossil discoveries suggest that Neandertals and Homo sapiens may have co-existed in Europe for as long as five to six thousand years. Yet, evidence for their contemporaneity at any regional scale remains elusive. In France and northern Spain, a region which features some of the latest directly-dated Neandertals in Europe, Protoaurignacian assemblages attributed to Homo sapiens appear to replace Neandertal associated Chatelperronian assemblages. 
Using the earliest and latest known occurrences as starting points, Bayesian modelling has provided some indication that these occupations may in fact have been partly contemporaneous. The reality, however, is that we are unlikely to ever identify the first or last appearance of a species or cultural tradition in the archaeological and fossil record. 
Here, we use optimal linear estimation modelling to estimate the first appearance date of Homo sapiens and the extinction date of Neandertals in France and northern Spain by statistically inferring these missing portions of the Protoaurignacian and Chatelperronian archaeological records. Additionally, we estimate the extinction date of Neandertals in this region using a set of directly-dated Neandertal fossil remains. 
The results suggest that the onset of the Homo sapiens occupation of this region likely preceded the extinction of Neandertals and the Chatelperronian by up to 1400-2900 years, raising the possibility of an extended co-existence of these groups during the initial Upper Palaeolithic of this region. Whether or not this co-existence featured some form of direct interaction, however, remains to be resolved.