Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Another DM Model

I don't think that this will work. The need for a stronger correlation with the SM sector is too strong given the astronomy data.

Production of Purely Gravitational Dark Matter: The Case of Fermion and Vector Boson

We consider the simplest possibility for a model of particle dark matter in which dark matter has only gravitational interaction with the standard model sector. Even in such a case, it is known that the gravitational particle production in an expanding universe may lead to a correct relic abundance depending on the inflation scale and the mass of dark matter particle. We provide a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the gravitational particle production of fermionic and vectorial dark matter, and emphasize that particles which are much heavier than the Hubble parameter but lighter than inflaton can also be produced abundantly.

Comments:25 pages, 2 figures
Subjects:High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)
Report number:DESY 19-050, KEK-TH-2114, UT-19-04
Cite as:arXiv:1903.10973 [hep-ph]
(or arXiv:1903.10973v1 [hep-ph] for this version)

And GR papers:

arXiv:1903.09643 (cross-list from hep-th) [pdfpsother]
Constraints on a Gravitational Higgs Mechanism
Comments: 18 + 12 pages
Subjects: High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)
We show that it is impossible to improve the high-energy behavior of the tree-level four-point amplitude of a massive spin-2 particle by including the exchange of any number of scalars and vectors in four spacetime dimensions. This constrains possible weakly coupled ultraviolet extensions of massive gravity, ruling out gravitational analogues of the Higgs mechanism based on particles with spins less than two. Any tree-level ultraviolet extension that is Lorentz invariant and unitary must involve additional massive particles with spins greater than or equal to two, as in Kaluza-Klein theories and string theory.
arXiv:1903.10509 (cross-list from astro-ph.CO) [pdfother]
Lyman-α forest constraints on Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter
Comments: 8 pages, 5 figures, 1 table
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)
The renewed interest in the possibility that primordial black holes (PBHs) may constitute a significant part of the dark matter has motivated revisiting old observational constraints, as well as developing new ones. We present new limits on the PBH abundance, from a comprehensive analysis of high resolution, high redshift Lyman-α forest data. Poisson fluctuations in the PBH number density induce a small-scale power enhancement which departs from the standard cold dark matter prediction. Using a grid of hydrodynamic simulations exploring different values of astrophysical parameters, we obtain a marginalized upper limit on the PBH mass of fPBHMPBH60 M(170 M) at 2σ (depending on priors), which significantly improves previous constraints from the same physical observable. We also extend our predictions to non-monochromatic PBH mass distributions, ruling out large regions of the parameter space for some of the most viable PBH extended mass functions.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Lepton Flavor Violations In B Meson Decays Still Seen In Experimental Evidence (updated March 27, 2019)

This is probably the most important discrepancy between theory and experiment in fundamental physics at the moment. The pulls on the Wilson coefficients mentioned exceed five sigma (before any proper look elsewhere effect analysis). There are new theories to explain it, explored below, but not good ones.

B-decay discrepancies after Moriond 2019

Following the updated measurement of the lepton flavour universality (LFU) ratio R_K in B -> Kll decays by LHCb, as well as a number of further measurements, e.g. R_K* by Belle and B_s -> mu mu by ATLAS, we analyse the global status of new physics in b -> s transitions in the weak effective theory at the b-quark scale, in the Standard Model effective theory at the electroweak scale, and in simplified models of new physics. 
We find that the data continues to strongly prefer a solution with new physics in semi-leptonic Wilson coefficients. A purely muonic contribution to the combination C_9 = -C_10, well suited to UV-complete interpretations, is now favoured with respect to a muonic contribution to C_9 only. An even better fit is obtained by allowing an additional LFU shift in C_9. Such a shift can be renormalization-group induced from four-fermion operators above the electroweak scale, in particular from semi-tauonic operators, able to account for the potential discrepancies in b -> c transitions. This scenario is naturally realized in the simplified U_1 leptoquark model. We also analyse simplified models where a LFU effect in b -> sll is induced radiatively from four-quark operators and show that such a setup is on the brink of exclusion by LHC di-jet resonance searches.
Comments:35 pages, 18 figures, 2 tables
Subjects:High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Experiment (hep-ex)
Cite as:arXiv:1903.10434 [hep-ph]

From the body text:

Motivated by the updated measurements of the theoretically clean lepton flavour universality tests RK and RK∗ by the LHCb and Belle experiments, as well as by additional measurements, notably of Bs → µµ by the ATLAS collaboration, we have updated the global EFT analysis of new physics in b → s`` transitions. A new-physics effect in the semi-muonic Wilson coefficient C bsµµ 9 continues to give a much improved fit to the data compared to the SM. However, compared to previous global analyses, we find that there is now also a preference for a non-zero value of the semi-muonic Wilson coefficient C bsµµ 10 , mostly driven by the global combination of the Bs → µ +µ − branching ratio including the ATLAS measurement. The single-coefficient scenario giving the best fit to the data is the one where C bsµµ 9 = −C bsµµ 10 , which is known to be well suited to UV-complete interpretations, and indeed is predicted in several new-physics models with tree-level mediators coupling dominantly to left-handed fermions.  
We have also studied the possibility of a simultaneous interpretation of the b → s`` data and the discrepancies in b → cτν transitions in the framework of a global likelihood in SMEFT Wilson coefficient space. We find one especially compelling scenario, characterised by new physics in all-left-handed semitauonic four-fermion operators. These operators can explain directly the discrepancies in b → cτν transitions, and, at the same time, radiatively induce a lepton flavour universal contribution to the b → s`` Wilson coefficients. An additional nonzero semimuonic Wilson coefficient then allows accommodating the RK(∗) discrepancies. Such picture can be quantitatively realized in the context of the U1 leptoquark simplified model, and we find that indeed an excellent description of the data can be obtained, including the deviations in b → cτν transitions.  
Another logical possibility to generate a lepton flavour universal NP effect in C9 is via RG effects from a four-quark operator. We have investigated this possibility in the SMEFT and in simplified tree-level models. We find that the only potentially viable setup is a colour-octet scalar. Due to its TeV-scale mass and large coupling to quarks, it is strongly constrained by di-jet resonance searches at the LHC and can be tested in the near future. Our study illustrates how the theoretical picture has evolved as a consequence of crucial measurement updates, and how this picture stays coherent in spite of the numerous constraints. We collect in Table 2 a number of predictions directly related to the discussed SMEFT scenario. The situation will only get more exciting due to the host of new analyses using the full Run-2 data set, as well as the Belle-II data set, to which we look forward.  
Note added: After the completion of this work, new preliminary results on RD and RD∗ using semileptonic tags were presented by Belle [109]. The new results, that are slightly closer to the SM predictions compared to an average of previous Belle results, are not yet included in our analysis.
March 27, 2019 papers re lepton-flavor universality violation in 
B meson decays:

[arXiv:1903.10823 (cross-list from hep-ph) [pdfpsother]
Simultaneous explanation of K and B anomalies in vectorlike compositeness
Comments: 12 pages, 4 figures; Contribution to the Proceedings of the Corfu Summer Institute 2018 "School and Workshops on Elementary Particle Physics and Gravity" (CORFU2018), 31 August - 28 September, 2018, Corfu, Greece
Subjects: High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Experiment (hep-ex)
We address the presently reported significant flavor anomalies in the K and B meson systems such as the CP violating Kaon decay (ϵ/ϵ) and lepton-flavor universality violation in B meson decays (RK(), and also commenting RD()), by proposing flavorful and chiral vector bosons as the new physics constitution at 1TeV. Interestingly, if the new (composite) vector bosons are quite heavier than 1TeV, we face a difficulty in addressing the anomaly in ϵ/ϵ consistently with the constraint from the K0-K0 mixing. Both of the anomalies can be addressed within 1σ confidence levels individually, where the relevant parameter space will be investigated by the NA62 and KOTO experiments, in addition to direct searches at the large hadron collider.
arXiv:1903.10954 (cross-list from hep-ph) [pdfother]
Rank-One Flavor Violation and B-meson anomalies
Comments: 28 pages, 8 figures, 7 tables
Subjects: High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Experiment (hep-ex)
We assume that the quark-flavor coefficients matrix of the semileptonic operators addressing the neutral-current B-meson anomalies has rank-one, i.e. it can be described by a single vector in quark-flavor space. By correlating the observed anomalies to other flavor and high-pT   observables, we constrain its possible directions and we show that a large region of the parameter space of this framework will be explored by flavor data from the NA62, LHCb and Belle II experiments. 

Implications for New Physics in bsμμ transitions after recent measurements by Belle and LHCb

We present a Bayesian analysis of the implications for new physics in semileptonic bs transitions after including new measurements of RK at LHCb and new determinations of RK and RK+ at Belle. We perform global fits with 2, 4, and 8 input Wilson coefficients, plus one CKM nuisance parameter to take into account uncertainties that are not factorizable. We infer the 68% and 95.4% credibility regions of the marginalized posterior probability density for all scenarios and perform comparisons of models in pairs by calculating the Bayes factor given a common data set. We then proceed to analyzing a few well known BSM models that can provide a high energy framework for the EFT analysis. These include the exchange of a heavy Z boson in models with heavy vector-like fermions and a scalar field, and a model with scalar leptoquarks. We provide predictions for the BSM couplings and expected mass values.
Comments:32 pages, 5 figures, 23 tables
Subjects:High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)
Cite as:arXiv:1903.10932 [hep-ph]
 (or arXiv:1903.10932v1 [hep-ph] for this version)
There is much less notable tension in the charm CP violation sector even though it is more than 4 sigma:

ΔACP within the Standard Model and beyond

In light of the recent LHCb observation of CP violation in the charm sector, we review standard model (SM) predictions in the charm sector and in particular for ΔACP. We get as an upper bound in the SM |ΔASMCP|3×104, which can be compared to the measurement of ΔALHCb2019CP=(15.4±2.9)×104. 
We discuss resolving this tension within an extension of the SM that includes a flavour violating Z that couples only to s¯s and c¯u. We show that for masses below 80 GeV and flavour violating coupling of the order of 104, this model can successfully resolve the tension and avoid constraints from dijet searches, D0D0 mixing and measurements of the Z width.
Comments:11 pages, 1 table, 1 figure
Subjects:High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Experiment (hep-ex)
Report number:IPPP/19/25
Cite as:arXiv:1903.10490 [hep-ph]
(or arXiv:1903.10490v1 [hep-ph] for this version)
It is less significant because the predicted value is uncertain:

Implications on the first observation of charm CPV at LHCb

Very recently, the LHCb Collaboration observed the CP violation (CPV) in the charm sector for the first time, with ΔAdirCPACP(D0K+K)ACP(D0π+π)=(1.54±0.29)×103. This result is consistent with our prediction of ΔASMCP=(0.571.87)×103 obtained in the factorization-assisted topological-amplitude (FAT) approach in [PRD86,036012(2012)]. It implies that the current understanding of the penguin dynamics in charm decays in the Standard Model is reasonable. Motivated by the success of the FAT approach, we further suggest to measure the D+K+Kπ+ decay, which is the next potential mode to reveal the CPV of the same order as 103.
Comments:10 pages
Subjects:High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Experiment (hep-ex)
Cite as:arXiv:1903.10638 [hep-ph]
(or arXiv:1903.10638v1 [hep-ph] for this version)
And there is a review of muon g-2 research:

The muon g2: a brief overview of hadronic cross section data

The hadronic vacuum polarisation contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, ahad,VPμ are evaluated dispersively via a combination of experimentally measured e+ehadrons cross section data. Many experiments have dedicated programmes to precisely measure these final states, meaning that a vast amount of data is now available and that, in some cases, overall precision has reached the sub-percent level. However, data tensions are evident between measurements of the same hadronic channels from different experiments, which reduces the overall quality of the data combinations used to determine ahad,VPμ. The inclusion of these data in the KNT18 analysis results in ahad,LOVPμ=(693.26±2.46)×1010 and ahad,NLOVPμ=(9.82±0.04)×1010. The corresponding new estimate for the Standard Model prediction is found to be aSMμ=(11 659 182.04±3.56)×1010, which is 3.7σ below the current experimental measurement.
Comments:The 9th International Workshop on Chiral Dynamics. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1802.06229
Subjects:High Energy Physics - Experiment (hep-ex); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)
Cite as:arXiv:1903.10349 [hep-ex]
(or arXiv:1903.10349v1 [hep-ex] for this version)

Single pseudoscalar meson pole and pion box contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

We present results for single pseudoscalar meson pole contributions and pion box contributions to the hadronic light-by-light (LBL) correction of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment. We follow the recently developed dispersive approach to LBL, where these contributions are evaluated with intermediate mesons on-shell. However, the space-like electromagnetic and transition form factors are not determined from analytic continuation of time-like data, but directly calculated within the functional approach to QCD using Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. This strategy allows for a systematic comparison with a strictly dispersive treatment and also with recent results from lattice QCD. Within error bars, we obtain excellent agreement for the pion electromagnetic and transition form factor and the resulting contributions to LBL. In addition, we present results for the η and ηpole contributions and discuss the dynamical effects in the ηη mixing due to the strange quarks. Our result for the total pseudoscalar pole contributions is aPS-poleμ=91.6(1.9)×1011 and for the pion-box contribution we obtain aπboxμ=16.6(1)(7)×1011.
Comments:11 pages, 9 figures
Subjects:High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Lattice (hep-lat)
Cite as:arXiv:1903.10844 [hep-ph]
 (or arXiv:1903.10844v1 [hep-ph] for this version)