Friday, January 26, 2018

Humans Left Africa About 185,000 Years Ago

It may have taken tens of thousands of years after leaving Africa for modern humans to establish permanent settlements beyond Southwest Asia, but modern humans left Africa at least about 185,000 years ago. And, even then, the range expansion appears to have been driven by technological advances.
To date, the earliest modern human fossils found outside of Africa are dated to around 90,000 to 120,000 years ago at the Levantine sites of Skhul and Qafzeh. A maxilla and associated dentition recently discovered at Misliya Cave, Israel, was dated to 177,000 to 194,000 years ago, suggesting that members of the Homo sapiens clade left Africa earlier than previously thought. This finding changes our view on modern human dispersal and is consistent with recent genetic studies, which have posited the possibility of an earlier dispersal of Homo sapiens around 220,000 years ago. The Misliya maxilla is associated with full-fledged Levallois technology in the Levant, suggesting that the emergence of this technology is linked to the appearance of Homo sapiens in the region, as has been documented in Africa.
Israel Hershkovitz, "The earliest modern humans outside Africa" 359 (6374) Science 456-459  (January 26, 2018) DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8369

1 comment:

DDeden said...

Bones of straight-tusked elephant, stone tools & fire-treated digging sticks at hot spring in central Italy. Both Homo & Straight-tusked elephant descended from African rainforest ancestors, as I've stated before. They both may have been attracted to the thermal springs in central Italy 170ka.

Excavations for the construction of thermal pools at Poggetti Vecchi (Grosseto, Tuscany, central Italy) exposed a series of wooden tools in an open-air stratified site referable to late Middle Pleistocene. The wooden artifacts were uncovered, together with stone tools and fossil bones, largely belonging to the straight-tusked elephant Paleoloxodon antiquus. The site is radiometrically dated to around 171,000 y B.P., and hence correlated with the early marine isotope stage 6 [Benvenuti M, et al. (2017) Quat Res 88:327–344]. The sticks, all fragmentary, are made from boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) and were over 1 m long, rounded at one end and pointed at the other. They have been partially charred, possibly to lessen the labor of scraping boxwood, using a technique so far not documented at the time. The wooden artifacts have the size and features of multipurpose tools known as “digging sticks,” which are quite commonly used by foragers. This discovery from Poggetti Vecchi provides evidence of the processing and use of wood by early Neanderthals, showing their ability to use fire in tool making from very tough wood.

PNAS article