Thursday, December 3, 2020

My Genetic Ancestry In A Nutshell

23 and Me and updated its ancestry algorithm. In my case, any changes from the previous estimates in this report were very subtle. 

I have Y-DNA haplogroup E-V13 (from my father) and mtDNA haplogroup H1b (from my mother). My autosomal ancestry using the regional assignment algorithm of the service is as follows:

The trace ancestry is from Southern India:

The service says this about that population:
Home to the Malayali (meaning “people of the mountains”), Kerala has been at the heart of a thriving international spice trade for millennia, becoming one of India’s most diverse and prosperous states. This genetic signature reaches high levels among Christian communities who live in Kerala, a large number of whom immigrated to the United States during the last century.
I suspect that this trace ancestry is a false positive. 

The reports assigns time depths to these major ancestry components in addition to localizing some of them.

The lion's share of my non-Finnish ancestry (including all of the Scandinavian ancestry) is from my father who is genetically, something of a Northern European mutt. I do have genealogically confirmed Irish ancestry on my father's side from a marriage that took place in Northwest Ohio, although I don't know precisely where in Ireland. My father's predominant ancestry according to genealogical sources is proximately from Lutheran Germany (it was called Prussia in 1847 at the time my patrilineal ancestor migrated to the U.S. to avoid being conscripted into the military). The relatively small amounts of Italian and Scandinavia admixture are traceable to pre-emigration admixture event in Europe, probably during the 18th century.

The regional localization of my Finnish ancestry (which is all on my mother's side) is quite striking as it is very close to the place from which my actual ancestors in Finland originate a little later in the 19th century. It looks more recent than the known date of immigration of my Finnish ancestors because my mothers ancestors all come from an endogamous Finnish community in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan that was a subset of the community in Finland from which they originally migrated to the U.S.

I have less than 2% Neanderthal DNA, but I still have more Neanderthal DNA than 78% of 23 and Me customers. 

I previously made a deep dive into what kind of narrative is likely to be associated with Y-DNA E-V13 at this blog, which can be found here.

My mtDNA haplogroup H1b is common in the 23 and Me sample (one in 130 customers). According to the service:
Your maternal line stems from a branch of H1 called H1b. The common ancestor of haplogroup H1b lived approximately 5,000 to 7,000 years ago in southwestern Europe. Her maternal-line ancestors had been among the former inhabitants of continental Europe, but massive glacial ice sheets during the last great peak of the cold at the end of the Ice Age pushed them out of the continental interior. They sheltered for thousands of years in warmer refuges along the Mediterranean. Then, as the Ice Age faded away, they re-emerged and migrated north.

While the woman who gave rise to H1b probably lived in southern France or the Iberian Peninsula, her descendants are most frequently found among eastern Europeans. Women carrying H1b journeyed eastward from southwestern Europe, passed north of the Italian Alps and entered present-day Slovakia. From there, H1b spread north throughout the region surrounding the Baltic Sea and the Volga-Ural area of Russia. Members of H1b also moved into southeastern Europe to Ukraine, the Balkans, and the Caucasus Mountains.
Previous posts on my personal genome from April 27, 2015, and April 6, 2015.

My Wife

My wife is 99.9% Japanese and Korean, with a possible 0.1% trace ancestry from Central and South Asia (from her mother's side). 

Both her parents immigrated from what is now North Korea (the partition was a recent event when they migrated to the U.S. in the 1960s) and have deep ancestry there. Notwithstanding this fact, 23 and Me states that South Korean ancestry is a "Highly Likely Match" and states that North Korean ancestry is not detected. This obvious fail is no doubt due to the small number of North Korean samples in the database.

The service also suggests that my wife has 7.6% Japanese ancestry (75% from her father suggesting that my wife would have a single great-great grandparent on his side, and 25% from her mother, suggesting that my wife would have a Japanese ancestor a generation or two more remote than that on her mother's side). This ancestry, according to the service, dates to sometime in the range from 1760 to 1850. At least some of this is probably an artifact of flaws in the ancestry matching algorithm, related to the fact that the non-Jomon ancestors of the Japanese very likely originated in the Korean Peninsula but Japan makes up more of the sample than Korea, although those flaws are significantly less severe than they used to be.

Her mtDNA haplogroup C5 is atypical for a Korean where it is found in 0.1% of tested Koreans (a point discussed here), although I suspect that the frequency is higher in North Korea, which is closer to the geographical homeland of that mtDNA haplogroup. My working hypothesis, given the relevant historical context and her mother's family background, is that she has a remote Mongol Princess matrilineal ancestor, from ca. 1250 CE, which may also be the source of trace Central Asian ancestry.


Ryan said...

It doesn't go any deeper than E-V13 for you? It goes as deep as R-Y9391 (a subclade of R1b-M222) for me. That's recent enough to pin to a specific clan and sept in Inishowen in Ireland.

Ryan said...

Also would love to hear your thoughts on this:

DDeden said...

OT: 35ka migration to Japan

Palaeolithic voyage for invisible islands beyond the horizon. Scientific Reports. Published online December 3, 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-76831-

Note: I have claimed that Papuans invented canoes (first bark, then wood) sometime between 45ka and 23ka from sago palm pith scraping (leaving hulls).

andrew said...

@Ryan One of two studies found consistency with the SM. The other found a 3 sigma anomaly (pre-look elsewhere effect) in one observation out of about ten between the two experiments. Also, while the SM prediction of linearity in transition frequencies is close to right, these are very complex multi-body systems and I wouldn't be surprised to find some slight non-linearity that a simplified model misses. So, an interesting line of inquiry but probably not a dark photon or other BSM boson.

@DDeden Thanks for the tip. Interesting.

"How Palaeolithic maritime transportation originated and developed is one of the key questions to understand the world-wide dispersal of modern humans that began 70,000–50,000 years ago. However, although the earliest evidence of maritime migration to Sahul (Australia and New Guinea) has been intensively studied, succeeding development of Paleolithic maritime activity is poorly understood. Here, we show evidence of deliberate crossing of challenging ocean that occurred 35,000–30,000 years ago in another region of the western Pacific, the Ryukyu Islands of southwestern Japan. Our analysis of satellite-tracked buoys drifting in the actual ocean demonstrated that accidental drift does not explain maritime migration to this 1200 km-long chain of islands, where the local ocean flows have kept the same since the late Pleistocene. Migration to the Ryukyus is difficult because it requires navigation across one of the world’s strongest current, the Kuroshio, toward an island that lay invisible beyond the horizon. This suggests that the Palaeolithic island colonization occurred in a wide area of the western Pacific was a result of human’s active and continued exploration, backed up by technological advancement."

andrew said...

I was not aware of the facts stated here:

"the western Pacific holds other areas with evidence of sea crossings during the Marine Isotope Stage 3, which are equally important to understand the developmental processes of early maritime technology and activity. The Ryukyu Island Arc in southwestern Japan (Fig. 1) is particularly interesting in this context. Here, archaeological sites found on six different islands suggest that maritime migration occurred ~ 35,000–30,000 years ago both from north (via Kyushu) and south (via Taiwan)15. Migration to these islands is challenging. The islands are small, of low elevation and not all are intervisible. Moreover, one of the world’s largest and strongest ocean currents, the Kuroshio, intervenes the water way (Fig. 1)."