23 and Me and updated its ancestry algorithm. In my case, any changes from the previous estimates in this report were very subtle.
I have Y-DNA haplogroup E-V13 (from my father) and mtDNA haplogroup H1b (from my mother). My autosomal ancestry using the regional assignment algorithm of the service is as follows:
The trace ancestry is from Southern India:
The service says this about that population:
Home to the Malayali (meaning “people of the mountains”), Kerala has been at the heart of a thriving international spice trade for millennia, becoming one of India’s most diverse and prosperous states. This genetic signature reaches high levels among Christian communities who live in Kerala, a large number of whom immigrated to the United States during the last century.
I suspect that this trace ancestry is a false positive.
The reports assigns time depths to these major ancestry components in addition to localizing some of them.
The lion's share of my non-Finnish ancestry (including all of the Scandinavian ancestry) is from my father who is genetically, something of a Northern European mutt. I do have genealogically confirmed Irish ancestry on my father's side from a marriage that took place in Northwest Ohio, although I don't know precisely where in Ireland. My father's predominant ancestry according to genealogical sources is proximately from Lutheran Germany (it was called Prussia in 1847 at the time my patrilineal ancestor migrated to the U.S. to avoid being conscripted into the military). The relatively small amounts of Italian and Scandinavia admixture are traceable to pre-emigration admixture event in Europe, probably during the 18th century.
The regional localization of my Finnish ancestry (which is all on my mother's side) is quite striking as it is very close to the place from which my actual ancestors in Finland originate a little later in the 19th century. It looks more recent than the known date of immigration of my Finnish ancestors because my mothers ancestors all come from an endogamous Finnish community in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan that was a subset of the community in Finland from which they originally migrated to the U.S.
I have less than 2% Neanderthal DNA, but I still have more Neanderthal DNA than 78% of 23 and Me customers.
I previously made a deep dive into what kind of narrative is likely to be associated with Y-DNA E-V13 at this blog, which can be found here.
My mtDNA haplogroup H1b is common in the 23 and Me sample (one in 130 customers). According to the service:
Your maternal line stems from a branch of H1 called H1b. The common ancestor of haplogroup H1b lived approximately 5,000 to 7,000 years ago in southwestern Europe. Her maternal-line ancestors had been among the former inhabitants of continental Europe, but massive glacial ice sheets during the last great peak of the cold at the end of the Ice Age pushed them out of the continental interior. They sheltered for thousands of years in warmer refuges along the Mediterranean. Then, as the Ice Age faded away, they re-emerged and migrated north.While the woman who gave rise to H1b probably lived in southern France or the Iberian Peninsula, her descendants are most frequently found among eastern Europeans. Women carrying H1b journeyed eastward from southwestern Europe, passed north of the Italian Alps and entered present-day Slovakia. From there, H1b spread north throughout the region surrounding the Baltic Sea and the Volga-Ural area of Russia. Members of H1b also moved into southeastern Europe to Ukraine, the Balkans, and the Caucasus Mountains.
My wife is 99.9% Japanese and Korean, with a possible 0.1% trace ancestry from Central and South Asia (from her mother's side).
Both her parents immigrated from what is now North Korea (the partition was a recent event when they migrated to the U.S. in the 1960s) and have deep ancestry there. Notwithstanding this fact, 23 and Me states that South Korean ancestry is a "Highly Likely Match" and states that North Korean ancestry is not detected. This obvious fail is no doubt due to the small number of North Korean samples in the database.
The service also suggests that my wife has 7.6% Japanese ancestry (75% from her father suggesting that my wife would have a single great-great grandparent on his side, and 25% from her mother, suggesting that my wife would have a Japanese ancestor a generation or two more remote than that on her mother's side). This ancestry, according to the service, dates to sometime in the range from 1760 to 1850. At least some of this is probably an artifact of flaws in the ancestry matching algorithm, related to the fact that the non-Jomon ancestors of the Japanese very likely originated in the Korean Peninsula but Japan makes up more of the sample than Korea, although those flaws are significantly less severe than they used to be.
Her mtDNA haplogroup C5 is atypical for a Korean where it is found in 0.1% of tested Koreans (a point discussed here), although I suspect that the frequency is higher in North Korea, which is closer to the geographical homeland of that mtDNA haplogroup. My working hypothesis, given the relevant historical context and her mother's family background, is that she has a remote Mongol Princess matrilineal ancestor, from ca. 1250 CE, which may also be the source of trace Central Asian ancestry.