[P]revious paleogenetic results have shown a strong continuity of the population between the Neolithic and the Chalcolithic in the south of the Iberian Peninsula. However, the end of the Chalcolithic saw an important difference appearing between the north and the south of the Iberian Peninsula with the appearance of individuals, often linked to the Bell Beaker people, carrying a steppe ancestry in the north from 2400 BCE and their absence in the south.The start of the Bronze Age in the Iberian Peninsula around 2200 BCE marks an important population change throughout the Iberian Peninsula with the omnipresence of individuals of steppe ancestry and the omnipresence of the Y chromosome haplogroup: R1b-P312 absent in the region before 2400 BCE.The transition between the Chalcolithic and the Bronze Age in southern Spain saw the destruction of fortified settlements like those of Los Millares or sites surrounded by ditches like those of Valencina or Perdigões, as well as the appearance in the south of the El Argar culture characterized by perched habitats, a funeral rite, ceramics and specific metal objects. The origin of this culture is still obscure although certain elements are close to the Bell Beaker culture such as V-perforated buttons, Palmela points or archer's armbands. However, Bell Beaker pottery is absent from the El Argar culture.
The first archaeological antecedents of the Bell Beaker culture appear for the first time around 2900 BCE in Southern Iberia, but the earliest documented instance of steppe ancestry in Southern Iberia dates to 2200 BCE and is associated with the Bell Beaker culture (a.k.a. the "campaniforme" culture).
Thus, the evidence in support of the model that the Bell Beaker culture involved the cultural diffusion of a Southern Iberian cultural movement into Europeans with steppe ancestry to their North in Western Europe is overwhelming.